The International Partnerships team leads the Institute`s political engagements with international actors to provide foresight, insights and action on the most pressing global challenges to peacebuilding and peacekeeping. By developing a virtuous circle of timely and policy-relevant thought leadership and collaborative partnerships with key international political actors and dialogue forums, the IP team strives to expand USIP`s global political influence and advance USIP`s mission to prevent and mitigate violent conflict. Based on the wording of the 1996 Peace Agreement and RA 9054, implementation requires the GRP to accept the use of Arabic or regional languages in the ARMM region. Section 14(j) of Republic Act 9054, passed in 2001, states that ”the official languages for instruction in the public school system are Filipino and English, even in ARMM public schools”. The legislation allows Arabic to be used as an auxiliary means of teaching – if the student chooses it. Article 1 also states that ”regional languages may be used as auxiliary languages in the region where they are used”. The United States and the Taliban signed an agreement in February 2020 that called for the opening of peace talks between the two Afghan sides in March. Negotiations were marred by repeated delays, but in early December, the Taliban and Afghan government teams reached an agreement on a set of rules and procedures. This procedural agreement is a modest but important step that could allow both sides to move forward in their quest for a political solution to end the decades-long war. The ARMM regional government continues to claim that the GRP violated the peace agreement with its unilateral control over Mindanao`s natural resources.
The audit of the ARMM budget for 2002 provides no evidence that the ARMM has been able to increase its revenues from the use of natural resources or from tax companies operating in the region. The total budget of the ARMM in 2002 was 14.3 billion pesos (about $342 million). The revenue generated by ARMM through taxes amounted to 2 million pesos (about US$48,000). Thus, 99,985 of the ARMM budget in 2002 came from the GRP, while 0.01 came from direct regional taxation.1 The OIC General Secretariat, the third verification body elected in the 1996 Peace Agreement, received an official report from the GRP in December 2005 reporting on the five main articles of the IMPLEMENTATION BY THE GRP of Phase II of the Peace Agreement. All domestic tax revenues collected during the current year in the area of self-government are allocated to the Regional Autonomous Government (RAG) for a period of five (5) years in the annual Law on General Resources; The education articles of the 1996 agreement require THAT ARMM SCHOOLS FOLLOW the same basic structure as the Philippine National School System in terms of standards and guidelines. The main responsibility for implementing the GRP is to ensure equal educational opportunities in the DMARD. In practice, this should mean proportional funding or a fair share of the funding of DMARD schools – relative to the DMARD population. According to information provided by the National Statistics Office of the GRP, the amount allocated to the DEMM education system appears to be fair compared to the funding of other provinces, although these statistics do not date back to 1996. For example, according to the Ministry of Education`s recent budget, 1.6 billion pesos ($38.2 million) was spent on kindergarten education. The ARMM received 52.1 million pesos ($1.2 million).
The ARMM received 3.14% of the country`s total kindergarten budget.1 According to demographic statistics, the armm population represented 3.15% of the total population. Therefore, it appears that the GRP allocates education funds based on population counts.2 Based on data from financial directories, we believe that the GRP contributes to an equitable share of DMARD schools` funding relative to the size of the ARMM population. The Bangsamoro Comprehensive Agreement is the most important peace agreement signed in the world since the agreement that ended the armed conflict in Nepal in 2006. The Mindanao process is now a crucial reference for other peace processes, as it is the most recent. The current ARMM Charter lists 14 areas that do not fall within the powers of the regional legislature. In this comprehensive peace agreement, the parties list 81 powers reserved for the central government, exclusively for the Bangsamoro and at the same time shared with or by both parties for power-sharing. Of the 81 powers, 58 are transferred to Bangsamoro, nine are reserved for the central government and 14 are divided.  The Bangsamoro Framework Agreement and four annexes, namely transitional provisions and modalities, revenue generation and wealth sharing, power sharing and standardisation, and addition to bangsamoro waters, are included in the global agreement.  The Philippine Armed Forces lifted red alert status on March 24 in preparation for the event. Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, President Hadji Murad Ibrahim and Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak are among the personalities expected to sign the agreement.
 It is important to focus on power-sharing strategies, election observation and nation-building in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the structuring of post-civil war peace agreements. While each issue may seem small in itself, the success or failure of a particular national peace agreement usually depends on the success of those provisions. The main timetable for the implementation of the 1996 agreement concerned the amendment of the RA. 6734 and the possibility of elections to expand the area contained in the ARMM. This should be done during Phase I (1996-1997). After the law was passed, a referendum was to be held in 1998 to determine who would join the ARMM. Legislation repealing RA 6734 and the related referendum did not take place in 1996. On 2 October 1996, President Fidel Ramos issued Decree No. 1996. 371, which proclaims a special zone of peace and development in the southern Philippines and establishes the Council for Peace and Development of the Southern Philippines and the Consultative Assembly.1 Following the controversial release of the last group of Taliban prisoners, intra-Afghan talks officially began on September 12.
2020 in Doha, Qatar. With the recent agreement on the rules of procedure, the two sides are now discussing the agenda for the formal talks. There are no documents or reports indicating that the OIC has ever met with representatives of the CCA or the MNLF to verify the implementation of the 1996 agreement. On 31 March 2001, the Congress of the Philippines passed Republic Act 9054, which established a regional human rights commission (Article 16) for the ARMM. The President and the two Commissioners of the RHRC are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Regional Governor. The composition of the Commission should reflect the ethnic distribution of the population of the autonomous region. The president is a lawyer and resident of the autonomous region.2 Neither the PNP regional command for the new autonomous region nor the Regional Security Special Force (RSSF) were created this year. Ten years after the signing of the peace agreement, the GRP reports to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) that it has applied Sharia law and reports that there are five District Sharia Courts and 30 District Sharia Courts within the ARMM. Given the fundamental frequency of Sharia courts established in 1996, it appears that no change to the status quo has taken place in ten years.1 The Bangsamoro Comprehensive Agreement (CAB) is a final peace agreement reached between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on 27 September. It was signed in March 2014 at malacañang Palace in Manila.
 Under the agreement, Islamic separatists would hand over their firearms to a third party chosen by the rebels and the Philippine government. The MILF has agreed to dismantle its armed wing, the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces (BIAF). In return, the government would establish an autonomous Bangsamoro. Power-sharing has been a central point in the overhaul of autonomy. The expanded ARMM Act or Republic Act 9054 was adopted in 2001. As required by the 1996 agreement, Republic Act 9054 provided for a new 24-seat regional assembly for the ARMM, where the current ARMM provinces and the new provinces could vote to join the ARMM. In order for provinces and cities to be included in the extended territory of the autonomous region, voters were asked whether they supported or opposed inclusion.1 Although Nur Misuari`s rhetoric may have triggered violence and the identity of the new faction is based on fidelity to Nur Misuari`s original vision, Misuari condemned the violence and tried to flee. Therefore, this event could be seen as a violation of the ceasefire or a new conflict with a new dissident group. Fotini, who studies the fragmentation of groups, sees it as a new conflict with a new faction, as does the UCDP.2 The 1996 peace agreement provides for the creation of a new regional legislative assembly with 24 representatives to be elected on the basis of the 8 congress districts in the 5 territories of the ARMM. There were no elections to the Regional Legislative Assembly in 1996.
While the combined strength of these two rebel forces has not reached a point where it poses a real threat to the Manila government, their existence – and the reasons for their resilience – certainly gives the government many headaches. .